好头发论坛

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

好头发福利
搜索
添加好头发微信:搜号码:haotoufa  查找公众号:好头发
搜索
好头发论坛 精华交流区 脱发论坛 头发维基百科-------米诺
查看: 33020|回复: 13
go

头发维基百科-------米诺

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
发表于 2015-10-23 10:36:47 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
本帖最后由 好头发翻译小组 于 2015-10-23 10:48 编辑

原文地址:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoxidil



1.Minoxidil
米诺地尔

Minoxidil is an antihypertensive vasodilatormedication. It also slows or stops hair loss and promotes hair regrowth in some people. Now off-patent, it is available over-the-counter for the treatment ofandrogenic alopecia.
米诺地尔是治高血压的血管扩张的药,它也能减缓,组织脱发,促进人们的头发生长。现在没有专利,是非处方药。是应对雄性脱发可用的治疗办法。
150px-Minoxidil_structure.svg.png

好头发翻译小组招新成员了!只要你有一定的英语基础,有责任心,那么请加入我们!
如果你有头发问题,那么请交给我们,我们来为你解决!工作一定时间,药物植发费用将大减免!而且不定期群里会发送大红包。
快加小编微信:Adonis457999,咨询更多详细情况!

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:39:14 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
2.Medical uses
医用

Minoxidil, applied topically, is widely used for the treatment of hair loss. It is effective in helping promote hair growth in both males and females withandrogenic alopecia.[1] About 40% of men experience hair regrowth after 3–6 months.[2] Minoxidil must be used indefinitely for continued support of existing hair follicles and the maintenance of any experienced hair regrowth.[3][4] It is the only topical product that is FDA approved for androgenic hair loss.[1]Treatments usually include a 5% concentration solution that is designed for men, and a 2% concentration solution for women.[5]
外部使用米诺地尔,此法广泛用于治疗雄性脱发。对于那些雄脱的男性女性,可以帮他们促进头发生长,大约40%的人在使用3到6个月有重新长出头发经历。米诺得一直无限期的使用,一直给现有头发的毛囊支持和那些新长出头发来维护。米诺是美药署唯一允许的应对雄性脱发的外用产品。米诺包含两种,一种是5%浓度的,男用。一种是2%浓度,妹子用。

The drug is available in the United Kingdom over-the-counter.[6]
此药现在在英国是非处方药有售。

Its effect in people with alopecia areata is unclear.[7]
对于斑秃的治疗效果还不明确。

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:39:53 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
本帖最后由 好头发翻译小组 于 2015-10-23 10:42 编辑

3.Side effects
副作用

Minoxidil is generally well tolerated, but common side effects include burning or irritation of the eye, itching, redness or irritation at the treated area, as well as unwanted hair growth elsewhere on the body. Exacerbation of hair loss/alopecia has been reported.[8][9].
米诺的不适通常是可忍受的, 但是一般的副作用包括了,灼热感,对眼睛刺激感,痒,用药区发红或红肿,还有不该有头发的地方长出毛来了。。 还有报道会加重脱发。

Users should discontinue treatment and seek medical attention right away if they experience any of the following serious side effects: severe allergic reactions (e.g. rash, hives, itching, difficulty breathing, tightness in the chest, or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue), chest pain, dizziness, fainting, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), sudden and unexplained weight gain, or swelling of the hands and feet.[10] Temporary hair loss is a common side effect of minoxidil treatment.[11] Manufacturers note that minoxidil-induced hair loss is a common side effect and describe the process as "shedding".
患者如果遇到下面的严重副作用应该立刻停止使用并寻求医生帮助。:严重过敏反应(例如皮疹,荨麻疹,剧痒,呼吸困难,胸闷,或者嘴巴,脸,唇或舌头肿胀)胸痛,头晕,昏厥,心跳过速,突然的解释不明白的体重增加,或者手足肿胀。 暂时的脱发是米诺地尔疗法的一个副作用-生产商注意到米诺会引起暂时脱发这给副作用,把此过程描述为“脱落期”

Alcohol and propylene glycol present in some topical preparations may dry the scalp, resulting in dandruff and contact dermatitis.[12] Some formulations of minoxidil substitute lipid Nanosomes in order to reduce contact dermatitis from the alcohol and propylene glycol vehicle.[13][14]
存在于外用药的酒精和丙二醇可能会让头皮干燥,可能会引起头皮屑和皮炎,米诺的一些组成代替了脂粒子以此来降低酒精和丙烯引发的接触性皮炎

Side effects of oral minoxidil may include swelling of the face and extremities, rapid and irregular heartbeat, lightheadedness, cardiac lesions, and focal necrosis of the papillary muscle and subendocardial areas of the left ventricle.[9] There have been cases of allergic reactions to minoxidil or the non-active ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical minoxidil formulations. Pseudoacromegaly is an extremely rare side effect reported with large doses of oral minoxidil.[15]
口服的米诺的副作用可能包括手足肿胀,快又不规律的心跳,头晕,心脏损伤,乳肌和左心室区域局灶坏死,限制有对米诺和里面的丙二醇成分过敏的,在一些外用米诺里都发现了丙二醇,据报道有大剂量服用米诺后出现了极罕见的作用:肢端肥大症。

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:40:16 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
本帖最后由 好头发翻译小组 于 2015-10-23 10:42 编辑

4.Mechanism of action
作用机制

The mechanism by which minoxidil promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is apotassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes. Hypothetically, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood, and nutrients to the follicle. This may cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, which are then replaced by thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. Minoxidil is a pro-drug activated by sulfation via the sulfotransferase (SULT1A1). Several studies demonstrated that the activity of sulfotransferase in hair follicles predict minoxidil response in the treatment of hair loss.[16][17][18]
米诺会促进头发生长的药理还未完全了解明确,米诺是钾通道的开门人,会引起细胞膜的极化,假设说,通过扩大血管,打开钾通道,能让更多氧气,血和营养到达毛囊。这会导致在休止期的毛囊脱落,然后会被新的生长期的更厚的头发所取代,米诺是由磺基传递酶(SULT1A1)来激活的潜药,许多研究证明磺基传递酶在毛囊的活动预示了米诺在头发治疗的反应。

Minoxidil is less effective when there is a large area of hair loss. In addition, its effectiveness has largely been demonstrated in younger men who have experienced hair loss for less than 5 years. Minoxidil use is indicated for central (vertex) hair loss only.[19] Minoxidil is also a vasodilator.[20] Two clinical studies are being conducted in the US for a medical device that may allow patients to determine if they are likely to fail minoxidil therapy.[21]
大面积脱发的话米诺的作用变小。另外,它的效果在那些脱发不到5年的年轻人身上大大被证明。米诺的使用被证明只用在头顶脱发。米诺也是血管扩张药。在美国的两个临床研究正在实施,此药疗设备,会允许病人决定他们是都可能会用米诺疗法失败。

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:40:45 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
5.History
历史

Initial application
最初应用

Minoxidil was developed in the late 1950s by the Upjohn Company (later became part of Pfizer) to treat ulcers. In trials using dogs, the compound did not cure ulcers, but proved to be a powerful vasodilator. Upjohn synthesized over 200 variations of the compound, including the one it developed in 1963 and named minoxidil.[22] These studies resulted in FDA approving minoxidil (with the trade name 'Loniten') in the form of oral tablets to treat high blood pressure in 1979.[23]米诺于1950年代由UPJPHO公司(后来成为PFIZER的一部分)研制出来治疗溃疡。用狗实验,这个化合物没能治愈溃疡,但是被证明是很有用的血管舒张药,UPJOHN综合了超过200种成分的变化组合,包括了后来它于1963年米诺地尔的这个,这些研究导致了美国药品署许可米诺以口服片的形式来治疗高血压。

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:43:06 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
5.History
历史

Initial application
最初应用

Minoxidil was developed in the late 1950s by the Upjohn Company (later became part of Pfizer) to treat ulcers. In trials using dogs, the compound did not cure ulcers, but proved to be a powerful vasodilator. Upjohn synthesized over 200 variations of the compound, including the one it developed in 1963 and named minoxidil.[22] These studies resulted in FDA approving minoxidil (with the trade name 'Loniten') in the form of oral tablets to treat high blood pressure in 1979.[23]米诺于1950年代由UPJPHO公司(后来成为PFIZER的一部分)研制出来治疗溃疡。用狗实验,这个化合物没能治愈溃疡,但是被证明是很有用的血管舒张药,UPJOHN综合了超过200种成分的变化组合,包括了后来它于1963年米诺地尔的这个,这些研究导致了美国药品署许可米诺以口服片的形式来治疗高血压。

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:44:37 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
6.Hair growth
头发生长

When Upjohn received permission from the FDA to test the new drug as medicine for hypertension they approached Charles A. Chidsey MD, Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.,[22] who conducted two studies,[24][25] the second study showing unexpected hair growth. Puzzled by this side-effect, Chidsey consulted Guinter Kahn and discussed the possibility of using minoxidil for treating hair loss.
当Upjohn获得FDA的批准测试新型药物针对遗传性脱发的特性时,公司选择的是Colorado医学院的Charles.A.Chidesy教授来负责。Charles教授曾经做过两项研究,其中一项研究展现出未曾预料到毛发生长现象,教授对该副作用很疑惑,于是同Guinte.Kahn教授进行研究,并开始讨论尝试使用米诺来治疗头发的可能性。

Kahn along with his colleague Paul J. Grant MD obtained a certain amount of the drug and conducted their own research, apparently without notifying Upjohn or Chidsey.[26] The two doctors had been experimenting with a 1% solution of minoxidil mixed with several alcohol-based liquids.[27] They tried to patent the drug for hair loss prevention, but found that Upjohn had already done this. A decade-long trial between Kahn and Upjohn ended with Kahn's name included in a consolidated patent (U.S. #4,596,812 Charles A Chidsey, III and Guinter Kahn) in 1986 and royalties from the company to both Kahn and Grant.[26]
然而Kagh教授并没有注意到Upjohn公司和Chidesy教授在这方面所做的努力,并与paul.Grant教授取得将一系列的研究成果。这两位医生所采取的药物实验组成是1%米诺和一些以酒精为基础的液体。他们尝试为此项药物申请专利,然而却发现Upjohn公司早已抢先申请。于是在Upjohn公司和Kahn教授之间展开了长达十年之久的专利方面的谈判,最终尘埃落定,Kahn教授的名字出现在联合专利的拥有者中,两者共享该项荣誉。(专利号US.#4596812.拥有者为Charles.A.Chidesy教授以及Guinter.Kahn教授)

Meantime the effect of minoxidil on hair loss prevention was so clear that in the 80's physicians were prescribing Loniten off-label to their balding patients.[23]
与此同时,米诺针对脱发的疗效十分显著,以至于八十年代的医生纷纷给脱发病人开米诺的外用药。

In December 1985 Upjohn presented to the FDA its study on baldness treament with 2% minoxidil that included over 1800 patients in various dermatology centers and in April 1986 made the results of this study public.[28]
在1985年12月,Upjohn公司向FDA递交2%浓度的米诺研究报告,研究报告中包含1800名来自各大皮肤研究中心病人用药效果。公司并于1986年4月向全社会公布该报告。

In August 18, 1988 the FDA finally approved the drug for treating baldness in men[23][27] under the trade name 'Rogaine' (FDA rejected Upjohn's first choice, Regain, as misleading[29]). The agency concluded that although "the product will not work for everyone", 39 percent of the men studied had "moderate to dense hair growth on the crown of the head".[29]
1988年4月18日,FDA最终批准将男性脱发用药的生产,冠以商标名称Rogaine(由于公司提交的商标名称Rogain有一定的误导性,故此,以Rogaine代替)。FDA声称,虽然该产品并不会对所有脱发人群都适用,但是,39%的药物接受者会明显的增加头顶部分毛发的密度。

In 1991 Upjohn made the product available for women.[27]
1991年,Upjohn公司开始生产女性脱发药品。

On February 12, 1996 FDA approved both the over-the-counter sale of the drug and the production of generic formulations of minoxidil.[23] Upjohn replied to that by lowering prices to half the price of the prescription drug[27] and by releasing a 5% formula of Rogaine in 1997.[23]
1996年2月12日,FDA批准将该药品升级为非处方药,以及同意米诺基因药物的生产。Upjohn公司对此的回应非常正面:1997年降低处方药品50%的价格,并向市场5%浓度的Rogaine。

In 1998 Men's Rogaine Extra Strength (minoxidil 5%) was approved for nonprescription sale by the FDA.[30]
1998年,FDA批准男用高强度Rogaine(5%米诺)可以作为非处方药进行售卖。

In 2006 Johnson & Johnson, who had bought the Rogaine brand from Pfizer, introduced minoxidil for men in the form of a mousse that "proved far more popular than the traditional liquid formulation".[31] Also a 2007 study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology revealed that unlike liquid solution, "the foam formulation does not have propylene glycol, an agent that commonly causes irritation and occasionally causes an allergic contact dermatitis".[32]
2006年,强生公司从Pfizer购买Rogaine的商标权,并以摩丝的名义向男士推出米诺,并声称经实验证明药物性质的摩丝状态优于液态状态。2007年,美国皮肤病学杂志发布文章也佐证这项言论,认为不同于液体状态下的米诺,摩丝状态下并不含乙二醇,这种原料会引起瘙痒,并可能诱发过敏性接触性皮炎。

In 2015 Johnson & Johnson introduced 5% minoxidil formulation for women in the form of a mousse that needs to be applied only once a day instead of twice.[33]
2015年强生推出针对女性的处于摩丝状态下的5%浓度米诺,并且使用频率由一天两次变成一天一次。

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:45:11 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
7.Application
应用

Minoxidil needs to be applied twice daily, and may be used indefinitely for continued support of existing hair follicles and the maintenance of any experienced hair regrowth. To achieve maximum effect, the solution should be in contact with the scalp for at least 4 hours before allowing hair to get wet.[34] Minoxidil stimulates hair follicles and growth, but does not reduce dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or the enzyme responsible for its accumulation around the hair follicle, 5-alpha reductase, which is the primary mediator of male pattern baldness in genetically susceptible individuals.[35] Therefore, when treatment is stopped, the DHT has its expected effect of shrinking and ultimately destroying the genetically predisposed hair follicles. There are multiple types of minoxidil applications: dropper, foam and spray.
米诺使用标准为一天两次。也可以为了使刺激毛囊的再生和维持既有毛发的存在而长期使用。为了达到最大的药效,米诺使用部分的头皮四个小时之内不得沾染清水。米诺能够刺激毛囊并促使其再生,不过并不能双氢睾酮以及促使毛囊周围新陈代谢的酶降到低水平处,同时5-a抑制剂的这种酶,就是致使基因敏感型脱发的最主要的中介物。于是,当治疗结束后,双氢睾酮会收缩至正常水平,最终会摧毁基因预置的毛囊。米诺的使用有多种形态:滴管式,泡沫式以及pen ji式。

60

主题

374

帖子

1321

金币
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-23 10:45:39 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
8.Trade names
商标

Minoxidil is marketed under many trade names including Amexidil, Avacor Physician's Formulation, Avogain, Keranique, Kirkland Signature (Costco's private label brand), Lipogaine,[36] Loniten (oral), Mintop,[37] Neocapil, Obabo, Regaine, Regenepure, Rogaine, Tugain,[37] Minoxin, Up & Up (Target's brand), EXT (Hair Club's brand), Vanarex, Hairgrow (produced by Dar el Dawa) and Alopexy (produced by Pierre Fabre).
米诺被冠以多种商标之下,例如  :Amexidil, Avacor Physician's Formulation, Avogain, Keranique, Kirkland Signature (科斯科私有品牌), Lipogaine, Loniten( 口头语化的), Mintop, Neocapil, Obabo, Regaine, Regenepure, Rogaine, Tugain,Minoxin, Up & Up (Target's 品牌), EXT (头发俱乐部品牌), Vanarex, Hairgrow (由Dar el Dawa出品) 以及 Alopexy (由 Pierre Fabre出品).

6

主题

151

帖子

30

金币
发表于 2015-10-23 12:04:37 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
外国人也用米诺

6

主题

151

帖子

30

金币
发表于 2015-10-23 12:05:14 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
我感觉被FDA认证的药都还不错

0

主题

5

帖子

30

金币
发表于 2015-10-24 19:18:12 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880

8

主题

856

帖子

-1082

金币

灌水先锋分享达人资深会员优秀征文

发表于 2015-10-24 23:42:41 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
为嘛科技这么发达还不能治疗脱发啊

3

主题

33

帖子

5

金币
发表于 2015-10-29 13:37:49 | 显示全部楼层         论坛脱发植发交流QQ群:86809880
好头发越来越牛,翻译组好样的,加油


标签  新帖  sitemap

好头发网 ( 京ICP备10043121号 京公网安备11010802020008 )  

GMT+8, 2018-8-16 23:56 , Processed in 0.140799 second(s), 39 queries , Gzip On.

Powered by haotoufa X3.2 Licensed

© 2001-2012 Haotoufa.com